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A comparison of elderly (2065 yrs) life style with body mass index (BMI)25

[收录:2011-05-16] [作者:] [服务:论文代写代发] [字体: ]
内容摘要:            作者:M. Saeed Heydarnejad, Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi 
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              作者:M. Saeed Heydarnejad, Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi  

【摘要】     Objective:compare the habits and features of obese (BMI>25) and normal (BMI<25) individuals and express a method to ameliorate the life styles using a crosssectional experiment.Methods:A total of 220 randomly selected cases were divided into case group (n=110) and control group (n=100) according to the calculated BMI level. Samples with BMI>25 kg/m2 were assigned to the case (obsess) group and those with BMI ranging from 20 to 25 were assigned to control (normal) group.The MillerSmith life style questionnaires consisting 20 questions each with 5 different answers were given to both groups. Data of the questionnaires were collected and analyzed using ttest and Chisquare with SPSS.Results:No significant differences were found among the two groups in terms of the mean age, gender, level of education, marital status, insurance, breakfast, lunch or dinner, fried meat, legumes, caffeinated beverages, the length of sleep during 24 h, cigarette smoking and losing job or spouse. However, in regards to use of vegetables, sausage, fried potatoes, enriched breads, low fat milk, low salt, candies and chocolates significant relations were found (P<0.05).Conclusion: The present study suggests one way to control obesity and prevent diseases is to ameliorate the life styles. There is a relation between health and stress and irregularity of meals, such as breakfast skipping, is associated with overweight and obesity in adolescence.

【关键词】   Life style; Obsess; Body mass index (BMI)

   INTRODUCTION
   
    Life style is related to the dynamic dailyliving patterns[1]. According to the repot of American Heart Society (AHS) in 2001, life style was introduced as an important factor involving in mortality and caused nearly 70% mortality among all bodily or psychotically depressed patients in USA[2].

    Life style is an affecting factor of chronic diseases such as colon cancer, hypertension, lung obstruction, AIDS, stomach ulcer and coronary heart disease[2]. For example, dietrelated health problems such as coronary heart disease and obesity are key factors in epidemiological studies and in countries such a Finland or USA. Diets rich in calories have a high rate of myocardial infarction[1]. According to the WHO, heart diseases will be the first cause of mortality during next 25 years and accounted for 5 millions and 200000 death annually worldwide[3]. In fact, obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease4 and obesity has reached epidemic proportions [5,6].

    Body Mass Index, is an empirically derived index used for several years and defined as weight (kg) divided by the squared body height (m) [7]. In addition, in Asia, an association between low Body Mass Index (BMI) and cardiovascular diseases has been reported. BMI is an important risk factor for heart failure.

    In a reference population, BMI offers an opportunity to compare individuals in relation to age and sex[7]. There is a clear positive association between obesity and the incidence of cardiovascular disease so that obesity is associated with increased risk of total cardiovascular disease mortality[4]. 

    Certain life style habits, including unhealthy dietary habits, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease[8].

    In Iran, it has been reported that 29.1% of women and 14.2% of men are obese and in both most of the overweight or obesity are included between 40~49 years old.
   
  Based on the investigations, overweight in people with a BMI>25 is usually accompanied with total increasing cholesterol. Likewise, the factor risk for myocardial infarction in people with a BMI<22 is low. The relation between obesity and various cancers has been proved. In women for example, cervix cancer in those having a BMI>30 is thrice than those with a normal weight[9]. In this study, the BMI below 25 kg/m2 BMI category was used as the reference (normal) point. This study aimed to compare life style of obese and normalweight people using BMI.

   MATERIALS AND METHODS

  The study, being crosssectional, was a descriptive and analytical study with a view to the past. Two groups of case (n= 110) and control (n= 100) were randomly selected. Specific health centers were assigned to get information about both of the investigated groups. The people were chosen based on the following standards: age between 2065 yrs, have no illnesses which have impaired with physical movements, mentally well, no drug usage, no pregnancy. All eligible cases were required to complete a comprehensive selfadministered questionnaire, including questions on life style and health condition.
   
  According to the calculated BMI level, all the cases were then divided into two groups (obese and normal), respectively. For each group, BMI was calculated. If calculated BMI was>25 kg/m2 then it was included in the case group (obese), and Samples with BMI between 2025 kg/m2 were assigned into the control (normal) group. BMI was as a measure of total adiposity to assess obesity. The MillerSmith life style questionnaires consisting 20 questions each with 5 different answers (Always=1; Often=2; Sometimes=3; Rarely=4; Never=5) were given to both groups. The higher scores indicate the lower life style. The reliability of the test was confirmed by means of forwardbackward translation. Also, validity of the test was calculated through a pilot study using alphaCronbach 0.796. Data of the questionnaires were collected and analyzed using ttest and Chisquare with SPSS.

   RESULTS

  No significant difference was found among the two groups tested in terms of mean age, gender, level of education, marital status, insurance, breakfast, lunch or dinner, fried meat, legumes, caffeinated beverages, the length of sleep during 24 h, cigarette smoking and losing job or spouse. However, in regards to use of vegetables, sausage, fried potatoes, enriched breads, low fat milk, low salt, candies and chocolates significant relations were found (P<0.05). In addition, comparing the past events between the obese and normal people showed that among change in life style, location of education, change in social activity and the amount of debt a significant relationship existed (P<0.05) (Table 1).
   
  The results imply that 81% of the people wish to talk when they are in stress situation and in this case, 86% of the obese persons will be supported from different persons. The sources of support and help contained: the family members 75 %, folks and friends 19% and consultation centers 6%. In difficult situations, 35% of the people talk to the friends and 26% have religious ceremonies (Table 2). 91% of the obese individuals loose meal programs when in stress and 81% use the specific methods in order their obesity to be controlled. These control methods showed that most of the people during eating and/or exercises and after it try to control their fat by means of appetitestimulants and number of meals.

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